11 Presentation of Data and Results

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It is important that CUAs are transparent so that quality and validity can be assessed. Table 14 outlines the information to include when reporting detailed CUAs. Lower levels of analysis undertaken by PHARMAC may be less descriptive.

Table 14: Information to Include in Report for Detailed Cost-Utility Analyses

Section Details Description


Statement of objective and perspective of analysis.

Decision problem that prompted the analysis.

Statement of type, scope and level of analysis.

Levels of analysis include rapid, preliminary, indicative, and detailed.

Disease and patient population

Description of disease.



Stage of disease

Disease progression


Description of target population.



Risk factors




Description of current treatment options available.

Aim of treatment





Length of treatment

Adverse events

Pharmaceutical Schedule listing criteria

Any likely amendments to treatment over time.

Study drug

Description of pharmaceutical.







Length of treatment

Adverse events.

Description of indication(s).

Registered and funded indication(s)

Indication for which funding is sought (including any restrictions).

Clinical evidence

Description of literature search strategy.

Database searched

Time period search undertaken

Search strategy used



Justification for excluding any citations.

Description of key clinical studies.


Study population

Follow-up period

Intervention and comparator

Withdrawals from treatment

Clinical endpoints.

Critical review of clinical studies

Grade of evidence (GATE, SIGN)

Possible sources of bias

Methods of randomisation.

Discussion of relevance of trial results to New Zealand clinical practice.

Efficacy compared with effectiveness.


Target population.

Target population included in the analysis.


Rationale for choice of main comparator.

Description of model.

Model type

Transition states

Markov states

Copy of decision tree or branch of decision tree.

Time horizon and cycle length.

Justification for time horizon and cycle length.

Discount rate.

Description of discount rate used for costs and benefits.

Outcome measures

Description of relevant outcomes and how they were measured.

Adverse events, disease progression, mortality, etc.

Transformation and extrapolation.

Include information on transitional probabilities and how these were derived, including details of any extrapolation of data, synthesising data, etc. The inclusion of graphs and tables can be useful.

List of parameter values.

Including confidence intervals.

List of assumptions.

Assumptions regarding the structure of the model and data.

Health-related quality of life

Description of how HR-QoL was measured.

For example, methods for mapping to generic health state instruments, use of expert opinion, etc.

Utility values used.

The health state (including a full description of the state) and corresponding utility value.


Description of costs.

Units of resources, unitary costs.

Description of realisation of hospital costs.

Information on whether a new treatment results in real savings to DHBs, nominal savings, or additional costs.

Description of data sources.

Including any strengths or weaknesses of data sources.


Results derived from the model.

Disaggregation of costs, savings, life expectancy and quality of life gains/losses, as outlined in Chapter 9.

Discounted incremental QALYs/$1M (point estimate and range)

Corresponding cost/QALY results (point estimate and range), placed in brackets.

Interpretation and discussion of results.

Discussion on likely relative cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical.

Sensitivity analysis

Results of sensitivity analysis.

Report using graphs, tables and/or elasticities. Include a full interpretation of the results.

Discussion of sensitivity to modelling assumptions and data inputs.

Direction of bias and magnitude of effect.


Discussion of results and other issues that should be considered under PHARMAC’s Factors for Consideration.

For example, benefits to individuals and whānau other than the person treated; health need and suitability.


Description of validation method and result.

For example, pharmacoeconomic review and/or clinical review.

Comparison with published analyses, including analyses undertaken by health technology assessment organisations.

Explanation of any differences in results.


Description of setting to which the results of analysis can be applied.

List of factors that could limit applicability in clinical practice.

Description of any research in progress.

Description of how new data may alter results of analysis.

11.1   Checklist

Table 15 is a checklist of information to include in PHARMAC base-case analyses and sensitivity analyses.

Table 15: Checklist of Information to Include in Base-Case Analyses and Sensitivity Analyses

Section Base-Case Analysis Sensitivity Analysis


Funder (health sector) and individual, taking into account PHARMAC’s Factors for Consideration.

Perspectives that include costs and health benefits to others, and costs falling outside the health sector.

Target population

Population most likely to receive treatment.

May consider inclusion of retrospective subgroup analyses if these data were of inadequate quality to include in base-case analysis.


Current clinical practice in New Zealand.

May consider inclusion of placebo and/or most effective treatment (if different from current clinical practice).

Clinical outcomes

Statistically and clinically significant outcomes obtained from high-quality RCTs, systematic reviews or meta-analyses (grade of evidence of 1+ or 1++). Include impact of non-compliance if significant.

Include statistically insignificant outcomes.

May consider impact of including additional sources of clinical evidence (eg unpublished trials).

Test all modelling assumptions, including any extrapolation of data.


Base of NZ EQ-5D Tariff 2. Use GBD weights to check for consistency.

Alternative sources of utility values.

Pharmaceutical costs

Proposed price of pharmaceutical.

Deflate price by 2% per year as a proxy for inflation in other costs.

Other costs

Hospital, outpatient and patient costs.

Vary costs over likely ranges.

Discount rate


0% and 5%

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